Wednesday, 28 July 2021

E30 318i: Leaking clutch slave-cylinder... fluid low


Now the E30 is running well I took it out for a test run and noticed that all of a sudden the gears were grinding a little bit. Checked the fluid reservoir and the level had dropped to about 10mm, not good. Looked under the car and saw a spot of fluid on the drive right under the slave-cylinder. My guess, and no prizes for guessing right here, it was a leaking slave-cylinder and, hey presto... sure looks like one to me.

Replacement is ordered. I went for a cheap and cheerful one off eBay for just £16.50, though £25-40 seems to be the going rate. Be fitting this when I have chance. Looking forward to the bodywork, but mechanical jobs just keep popping up... that be old BMWs!



Monday, 26 July 2021

E30 M40 316i / 318i: Adjusting Throttle-Body and Idle Stop-Screw

Yes, this is set at the factory and they say it should never be messed with, but as the youngest M40 engined BMWs are approaching 30 years old now, chances are the stop-screw and throttle-plate will have been adjusted at some point in its life. 

Here I will explain what happens when it is adjusted, the problems it may cause if it has been and how to reset it back to stock. 

WHY HAS IT BEEN ADJUSTED?

The stop-screw should have a paint mark on it from the factory to show if it has been messed with, but after so many years the mark may no longer be visible. If you feel yours has been adjusted in the past, the main reason this has been done is likely to falsely raise a low idle caused by another issue, say an induction air leak. If an over lean mixture is causing a low idle, the tendency is to tweak the idle stop-screw to get the car to tick over at higher revs and stop the engine stalling out or running lumpy. This is a great short-term workaround, but will cause other issues with the AFM / DME and fuel delivery further down the line, particularly when the underlying issue is worked out.

SYMPTOMS:

The issues you will get with a poorly adjusted throttle stop-screw are:

High idle.

Hunting / pulsing revs. 

Poor or no low-end throttle response.

Erratic idle (if throttle position switch TPS is not engaged).

Bogging at high revs (where wide-open throttle WOT switch is not engaged).

ADJUSTING:

There is only one way the throttle can be adjusted, via the stop-screw, though the throttle-cable itself can be adjusted to change throttle response somewhat, mainly with how the pedal / cable reacts to driver input and will not affect the fuel/air ratio and the engine idle.

** The intended job of the idle stop-screw is simply to stop the throttle-plate from jamming in the throttle-body and being difficult to open when the pedal is pressed and not to change the car’s idle characteristics. BMW recommend that this is never played with, so do so at your own risk. **

1. Back off the lock-but using an 8mm wrench.

2. Use a small flat screwdriver to wind the idle stop-screw in and out. 

* Clockwise will push the throttle-linkage further from its rest position, holding the throttle-plate open slightly and allowing more air to bypass it while the pedal is not pressed.

*Anti-clockwise will allow the throttle-linkage to close further and will reduce bypass air and choke the engine while the pedal is not pressed. 

STOCK SETTING:

You will need a set of A/F / imperial feeler-gauges as this is how the stock throttle-plate aperture is measured. 

** If you are only adjusting the throttle-plate and do not need to adjust the throttle position switch (TPS) then the throttle-body itself does not need removing and you can skip to step 7.**

Removing the Trottle-Body:

1. Remove the main air-inlet hose from the AFM to the throttle-body by loosening the jubilee-clip and easing it off.

2. Unclip the throttle-cable from the throttle-linkage and remove the two screws holding the throttle-cable mount from the top of the throttle-body housing using a 10mm wrench. Move the cable assembly to one side.

3. Remove the two water hoses and air vacuum-hose from either side of the throttle-body by undoing the jubilee clips and teasing the hoses off with a screwdriver.

4. Remove the six nuts from the upper inlet-manifold using an 11mm wrench and the two locating screws from the manifold using a 10mm wrench. Lift the upper inlet-manifold so that the throttle body can be fully accessed. 

5. Remove the throttle-body from the inlet manifold by undoing the four nuts using a 10mm wrench.

6. Turn the throttle-body upside down and remove the throttle-position-switch (TPS) by removing the wiring connecter and undoing the two cross head screws.

7. Back off the lock-nut of the stop-screw using an 8mm wrench. 

8. Use a small flat screwdriver to adjust the throttle stop-screw by the notch in the end of it. Obviously, clockwise will move the screw further out and make the throttle-butterfly rest in a more open position. Anticlockwise will allow the butterfly to close more.

9. For the OEM setting, the throttle-butterfly should be 0.377” from the housing, so use your feeler-gauge between the side of the tube and either side of the butterfly until you find a happy medium.

10. Tighten the lock-nut up again with an 8mm wrench.

11. Now take the throttle-position switch (TPS) and locate it back in the housing so that the switch is depressed while the throttle is in the fully closed position. With the two screws loosened, the TPS can be swivelled left and right as in pic below to adjust the point at which it engages. The ideal placement for the switch is to have it click closed while the throttle is open about 1mm. (You will hear the quiet click from the TPS as it opens and closes.) When you’re happy with the TPS placement tighten the screws to lock it in place.

12. Before refitting the throttle-body, check the operation of the butterfly and TPS and make sure the butterfly is not binding to the body while fully closed as this will ruin low-end throttle response.

13. Refitting is a reversal of steps 5-1.

Wednesday, 9 June 2021

E30 318i M40: GUIDE - Replacing lower inlet-manifold gasket - rough idle and stalling fixed!

After all the diagnosis and testing from THIS POST, I found the cause of my rough idle and stalling out when cold was a damaged paper gasket on the lower inlet-manifold allowing unmetered air to be drawn in to the plenum at will and confusing the AFM and DME over how much fuel to deliver. 

The engine just about ticked over when warm, albeit with a slight misfire. On cold startups however, the misfire was a lot more severe and at low revs the engine just couldn’t hold on, stalling out due to a way over-lean mixture. It would drive though, but there was no throttle response until about halfway up the rev range and power would arrive with a bang. It is amazing how sensitive these older engines with analog electronics are to unmetered air leaks!

IF YOU HAVE THESE SYMPTOMS, CHECK HERE!

I ordered a new gasket from eBay, it was a snip at £6.88. Be careful when ordering, older M10 engine gaskets are far more plentiful, so ensure yours is the right one for the M40... they have a funny shape which is quite distinctive. Choice was limited, in fact I could find one more gasket for sale of the right type and that came with a full £30 set including a head gasket, so be sure to check out carpartsinmotion, they have rare-fit stuff.

GUIDE:

1. Undo the jubilee-clip and disconnect the large rubber duct from the throttle-body using a flat screwdriver or 7mm socket.

2. Unclip the throttle-cable from the throttle-linkage and remove the two 10mm screws holding the metal plate to the throttle-body so the cable assembly can be moved clear.

3. Remove the wiring connectors from the throttle position sensor [TPS] and idle control valve [ICV].

4. Remove the rubber hose from the bottom of the ICV.

5. Remove the vacuum air hose from the front side of the throttle-body by undoing the jubilee-clip and teasing it off carefully with a flat screwdriver.

6. Remove the two coolant hoses from either side of the throttle-body by undoing the jubilee clips and teasing them off with a flat screwdriver. 

7. Remove the six nuts from the upper inlet-manifold using an 11mm wrench [9 in diagram] and two locating studs in the centre with a 10mm wrench [13 in diagram]. 

8. The upper inlet-manifold can now be lifted out of the engine bay.

9. Remove the wiring connector from the fuel-rail / injectors. 

10. Remove the metal fuel send and return pipes from each end of the fuel-rail by undoing the jubilee clips. (This is where it gets messy, you may wish to plug or clamp the ends of these hoses). The send pipe is attached to the fuel pressure regulator [FPR] at the front of the fuel-rail and the return pipe is at the back of the rail.

11. Remove the five nuts holding the ports of the lower inlet-manifold to the head using an 11mm socket [4 in diagram].

12. Remove the two bracing bolts from the lower inlet-manifold using a 13mm socket. (They point towards the right side of the car) [11 in diagram].

13. The lower inlet manifold is now free to be removed. This can be a bit tricky as the rigid fuel pipes are routed through one of the gaps in the manifold ports. Also make a note of how the hoses to the throttle-body are routed through around the lower manifold, as it can be confusing once the upper manifold is bolted back in.

14. Clean off the mating surfaces of the cylinder head and the inlet manifold.

15. Carefully fit the new gasket to the studs on the head. It only fits one way round.

16. To refit reverse the above steps.

Sunday, 6 June 2021

1988 E30 318i Project - Check List:

 I will update this and cross things off as progress is made:

  • Straighten steering wheel.
  • Speedometer / Odometer inop.
  • Temperature gauge inop. [THIS POST]
  • Washer-jets / pump.
  • No hot air from heater-blower. [THIS POST]
  • Central locking malfunction.
  • Instrument lights flicker / dimmer function inop.
  • Clock inop. [THIS POST]
ENGINE:
  • Rough idle / stalling when cold. [THIS POST]
  • Exhaust too loud. [THIS POST]
  • Clutch slave-cylinder leaking.
BODYWORK:
  • Paint NSF wing.
  • Repair rear valance.
  • Touch up valance corners.
  • Panel above rear lights.
  • OSR wheel arch.

E30 318i [M40]: Massive air leak SOLVED - lower inlet-manifold gasket

I had checked and re-checked the idle control valve [ICV], the air-flow meter [AFM], ignition system, tested for the fuel pressure, performed tests on the DME [ECU] to make sure that was working and even laboriously tested the wiring loom for continuity, but still the engine idles terribly when cold. It ticks over lumpy, shakes the engine side to side and cuts out at will, even when power is applied. 

I checked the timing and all was good, under the rocker-cover showed no defective valves and the cam-shaft doesn't look all that worn. I guess the only thing left to check is the injectors... right?? Now hold on a minute I hear the E30 and M40 engine gurus cry, the symptoms you've described point towards an obvious massive air leak in the induction system! 

This is true and is also the very first thing I looked for and tested. Initially I performed the 'spray' test using a can of brake-cleaner (though 'Easy-start', carb-cleaner or electrical-cleaner work too, anything with alcohol content). This involves running the engine and spraying brake-cleaner around the intake-manifold, ICV, vacuum hoses, throttle-body etc. If unwanted air is being sucked in, say through a split hose, the brake-cleaner will be sucked in and combusted by the engine causing it to rev higher. If you are spraying in one particular place and the engine revs increase accordingly then you have found your air-leak. Thing is, I did this test over and over again and it showed nothing. 

I’ve heard that air can be sucked in past the injector bodies when the rubber sealing rings have degraded over time and that the lower intake-manifold is also a main culprit, but spraying round this area made no difference to the engine revs or affected the poor idle. I did a compression test and the readings were a bit low, but not enough to cause any issues.

At this point I decided it to bite the bullet and begin stripping things down. The removal of the lower intake-manifold is quite complicated because it involves removing the fuel-lines from the rail, which is why I put it off, but clearly if you want to fix something then you need to get your hands dirty so off came the fuel lines and away came the lower manifold to reveal.... well, as you can see from the photo, a virtually non existent gasket. Sigh. 

Cylinder 1 has a massive gap where the gasket is no longer there, so whenever there is a vacuum in the plenum it’s just filling up with fresh air even with the throttle-body shut and this explains why the ICV appears to be doing nothing and leads people to look there first. Whoever was refitting the manifold was obviously in a rush because the broken gasket has folded over on itself, causing the air gap to be even bigger. I guess they just tightened it hoping to make a seal, but alas no. Cylinder 2 is not much better with a noticeable gap and the rest of the gasket squashed flat. Cylinders 3 and 4 are better, but still paper thin. It looks like this may be the original gasket and the past 35 years have not been kind to it (or to me for that matter).

So... looks like I have found the culprit of the rough idle. Finally! New gasket is ordered, a snip at £6.88! Amazing how such a simple thing can cause such a severe problem and goes to show how sensitive these ‘analog’ ‘80s cars are to air metering issues!

Saturday, 5 June 2021

E30 318i: Correct Temperature Sensor fitted (Brown Plug) + wiring/loom issue

The temperature gauge in the dash has not worked since I bought the E30, which was a little worrying on my 250 mile drive home, but the car does not overheat. Oh, it has some issues with the cooling-system, like the heater-matrix pipes fitted incorrectly and an air-lock at the back of the head, but hey it doesn't overheat. Still though, I thought it best to get the bottom of the faulty temp. gauge for peace of mind, particularly with summer coming / just about here.

The M40 has two separate temperature sensors that are independent from one another. The temperature gauge works from the 'Brown plug' sensor to the rear of the head [right in pic]. The forward sensor is the 'Blue plug' [left in pic] and that connects only the DME (ECU) to tell the car if the engine is cool or warm to help with cold-start procedures. A single sensor cannot be used for both purposes on these older engines as the resistance value ranges required for each function differ, the DME being a digital circuit and the temp. gauge still working in analog. [You can read more about this on the E30 Zone Wiki HERE].

MULTIMETER TESTING:

The temp. sensors can be easily tested with a multimeter set to 20k ohms resistance. 

The Blue plug is a two-pin sensor, so test across both terminals with the multimeter and you are looking for a reading of 4-4.5k ohms for a working sensor. This sensor and plug can be accessed easily without removing any parts from the engine.

The Brown plug though will require removal of the lower inlet-manifold to access the sensor for testing or replacing. This is a single pin sensor, so place one probe of the meter to the terminal and the other to a ground-point in the engine bay or against the block/head. Expect a reading of between 1k and 1.5k ohms for a working sensor. To test the Brown plug sensor without removing any parts from the engine, you can apply the multimeter to Pin 4 of the C101 connector (main wiring loom plug in engine bay) which is easy enough to get at, or at Pin 26 of the blue connector to the right side of the instrument binnacle, though the binnacle will need removing to do this.

WRONG SENSOR / CONFUSING WIRING LOOM:

All M40 engine wiring looms use a single pin temp. sensor on the brown plug that earths through the engine block and have only a single wire in use leading to it. Some looms, using components destined for other BMW models, are known to have a second wire leading to the Brown plug temp. sensor which is redundant on the M40 motor, though this is rare and seen more often on 6-cyl. M20 looms. My car has one such loom, however and I realise that this is what has caused confusion in the past and led to the wrong sensor in fact being fitted...

Upon inspection, the rear temp. sensor fitted to my E30 is black, not brown and has two terminals. The second pin means that the sensor body earths back to the loom and not through the block so, if the redundant earth wire in my loom is not connected to a ground-point then the sensor was open circuit. I guessed that someone had ordered a second Blue plug sensor by mistake and fitted that, but it turns out the part number doesn't match and the sensor is for a completely different model engine entirely. The reading from the multimeter was over 11k ohms, something like 7.5 times what it should be! That sensor was never going to work with the E30 temp. gauge circuit whether it was earthed or not.

I ordered the correct single-pin sensor with the brown base from mr-wiper on eBay, who also supplied my Bosch spark-plugs. It was only £7.69 delivered. My temp. gauge now works, but this may also be due in part to removal of an air-lock at the back of the head due to a heater-matrix problem so coolant is now flowing properly round the area of the sensor. 

A BIT MORE ON WIRING LOOMS:

Brown / Violet, brown being the main colour, denotes that the power source provided from the temp. gauge circuit is earthing through this wire and does not need to be a closed circuit back to the gauge. The other wire is either not wired in to the loom or goes to a body-earth anyway, so earthing the sensor through the block will make no difference. This colour coding is the same for all wires in all BMW looms, I would imagine most cars are the same.

Wednesday, 2 June 2021

E30 318i: Noisy exhaust gets a bung / silencer

My E30 has a 4" straight-through Japanese tuner style exhaust back-box fitted, which to the say least is LOUD. In fact, it's one of the loudest I've heard on any car, including a Subaru turbo I had with a de-cat pipe. I figured the centre-box had also been removed from the E30, given the noise level, but find it is still there under the car and looks to have been replaced not too long ago, so I guess the only reason for the volume from this 1.8 litre 4-banger is because it never had a catalytic converter from the factory and is subject to no emission controls that bind (and quieten) modern cars. This E30 is 1988, so must have been right at the end of this phenomena.

While the loud pipe might be fun on a jaunt, working on the engine at home I find myself needing to start and idle the car constantly for testing and this is where the noise causes a problem, mainly with my neighbours and passers-by. They tolerated it for a couple of weeks, but with a few running problems that are still being ironed out and the car unable to move to another location I decided to try and mute it a bit. 

I had two options. Buy a more sociable back-box or get a silencing 'bung' for the current one. I'm not best pleased with look of the Jap-style straight-cut end pipe, I mean I like them but don't feel it suits the boxy E30 and though I'm down with car style juxtapositions all DAY, this isn't the one I would have chosen, so first looked for a replacement. New stock items are not expensive, but too much for this project, so second hand was the way, with twin 'sports' style spurious back boxes and used OEM items going for between £50 and £100. I was tempted by a nice twin square pipe from a German tuner, but the seller had no idea how loud it was and at £55, I still deemed it too pricey at this uncertain stage in the project. People at work fit ‘bungs’ to their motorbikes so I thought this was budget way to reduce the burble by a few dB.

DOES IT WORK?

Yes and no. It certainly takes the edge off the noise level, that ‘crack’ has gone, but it’s still one loud exhaust. The info says it reduces sound levels by up to 15 decibels and I have adjusted to the quietest, most restrictive setting, but without a dB meter I can’t really say if it is that much. In my opinion it’s not to that great an extent but it is somewhat quieter. 

Don’t expect the exhaust to sound as quiet as a stock back box with baffle plates. I suppose you’re never going to get a quiet exhaust tone and still enjoy the slight increase in power a straight-through pipe gives, so as ever there is a compromise, but it has certainly done the trick for me of making the car less anti-social when tuning it in my driveway! Who knows, when I get the E30 out and about over the summer the bung may well be coming back out.